Components and Types of Database Management System

by Maryann Omeke

Have you ever stored a collection of books at home in an organised and formulated way for easy access. and you noticed things become easier for you to search in there? Then you will understand  what we want to discuss in this article.

As the world evolves, many terms are being used to describe how certain things work. Technology has made it easy to do all these and has termed the above-illustrated example to be  ‘Database Management System,‘ and we are going to look into what it is all about, its components, types, and examples. But before that;

What is a Database? 

A database is an organised collection of stored and managed data to enable efficient recovery. Storing this collection of data well is important for easy recovery, and that can be made possible using a Database Management system.

What is a Database Management System (DBMS)?

Database Management System (DBMS) is a computerised data-keeping software that allows you to create, manage, and modify the database. It provides a way for organisations to store, organise and retrieve large amounts of data quickly and efficiently in an ordered manner. 

In a nutshell, DBMSs help to:

  • Enforce data integrity.
  • Maintain security.
  • Make it easier to manage.

Component of Database Management System (DBMS)

A DBMS has several components that work together to ensure the efficient usage and management of data, and at its core, we can summarise it into six components, namely;

  1. Hardware

This refers to the physical devices, including the computer, that store the data. Some examples of hardware used in a DBMS include Computers, Hard disks, I/O channels, and many more.

  1. Software 

The software component of a DBMS refers to the computer programs used to manage the database. This include the DBMS itself or supporting software like drivers or utilities.

Simply put, the software is a layer supported by the hardware to create a visual interface for the user to interact with to control the database.

  1. Data

The data generated by an organisation is the lifeblood of a DBMS. It is the resource that is stored within a database.

Metadata, which is the information about the data, is also stored within a DBMS. This information provides some context about the data and helps to ensure that it is maintained, secured, and accessed correctly. For example, metadata could include information like the type of data, its size, and the time it was created.

  1. Methods

DBMS procedures are the guidelines that dictate how the database is set up and should be used. These procedures govern how data is accessed, modified, and archived. In simple words, these are the instructions on how a DBMS should be utilised.

  1. Database access questioning language 

Users must use a specific query language that the DBMS understands when accessing a database. These languages can generally be split into four categories:

  • Data definition language (DDL)
  • Data manipulation language (DML)
  • Data control language (DCL)
  • Transaction control language (TCL)

These languages play a part in searching, fetching, updating, and adding data to the database. Without the use of languages, the database cannot be accessed easily through interfaces.  

Other common query languages include:

  • Structured Query Language (SQL)
  • Object Query Language (OQL)
  • XQuery
  • GraphQL
  1. Users

Users are the people who access the database. Depending on their level within the organisation, users might access different parts of the database and use different software tools to interact with the data. Some examples of these users include:

  • Database Administrators (DBAs) create the database and set up access permissions.
  • Data Analysts analyse data in the database to gain insights and make decisions.
  • Software developers write programs that interact with the database.

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Types of Database Management Systems (DBMS)

  1. Relational database management system (RDBMS)

Relational Database Management Systems are the most common type of DBMS. It stores data in the form of related tables and uses Structured Query Language (SQL) to manipulate and access data. 

Organisations use RDBMS to store large amounts of structured data, such as customer information or product inventory. This type of DBMS is the most commonly used because of its ease of use and flexibility. Data is stored in tables, and keys are used to manage relationships between tables. Examples of RDBMS include:

  • MySQL
  • Oracle
  • Microsoft SQL Server

RDBMSs are ideal for handling well-organised data that fits neatly into a predefined schema; this makes them perfect for use cases like Inventory records, Invoice lists, Patient visit entries, and NoSQL DBMS. 

That brings us to another popular system used by many companies, which is the NoSQL database management system which stands for “not only SQL,” indicating that it does not follow the traditional relational database model. 

This type of DBMS is specifically designed to handle large amounts of unstructured or semi-structured data, such as social media data, sensor data from the Internet of Things (IoT), and documents; unlike relational databases, NoSQL databases do not follow a fixed table structure, which helps provide high scalability and flexibility. Examples of NoSQL DBMS include MongoDB, Cassandra, couchbase, and NoSQL databases. 

NoSQL database can also be further split into several categories, which include:

  • Document-Based: These databases store data as documents (e.g., JSON, BSON), making them ideal for document-oriented applications.
  • Key-Value: Key-value stores store data in a simple key-value pair, speeding up data retrieval times and reducing the overhead associated with relational databases.
  • Column-Family: A column-family or wide column is a column that can store a list of values. This model is well suited for storing large amounts of data that require faster retrieval times.
  • Graph-Based: Graph databases are designed for experienced developers and data scientists. They store data in the form of nodes and edges, each of which has a unique identifier; these databases are ideal for complex data relationships with many-to-many relationships.
  1. Network database management system (NDBMS) 

 NDBMS is the acronym for Network Database Management System. In a network DBMS, data records are represented as nodes in a network, and each node has links to other nodes. 

These links represent relationships between the data records, and it allows applications to navigate between different levels of records and support complex data relationships. Its strength is its ability to handle many-to-many relationships, which is useful for applications such as social media networks. Examples of network DBMS include: Integrated Data Store (IDS) and Integrated Database Management System (IDMS)

Network database management systems can be applied in various sectors, such as;

  • Banking: Network DBMS can support core banking services like withdrawals, deposits, transfers, and user management.
  • Airline reservations: In airline reservation systems, network DBMS can be used to store flight schedules, booking information, and seat allocation information.
  • Governments: Federal and state governments can use network DBMS to manage complex data structures, such as census data, real estate records, and tax records.

Using a Database Management System (DBMS) can bring several benefits to an organisation. Some of these benefits include Improved data integrity, Scalability, Backup and recovery, and stronger data security and access control.

Read Also: A Comprehensive Guide to Information Security and its Importance to Nigerians


Database Management Systems (DBMS) are vital tools for businesses as they help to store and manage data efficiently. There are several types of DBMSs, each with strengths and use cases.

Using a DBMS can provide an organisation with several advantages, including improved data integrity, more robust security, and access control mechanisms, better backup and recovery capabilities, and scalability. 

Therefore, businesses have to consider their needs carefully when deciding which type of Database Management System to use. 

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Edited by Emmanuel Odebiyi

About Author

Avatar of Maryann Omeke
Maryann Omeke
Maryann Omeke is a blockchain and web3 content writer. I strive to create high-quality, informative, and engaging content on the potential of decentralized, web3 technologies and their impact on society. With a talent for breaking down complex concepts into digestive writing, I help readers navigate the exciting world of decentralized systems.

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